Mated birds of many species vocalize together, producing duets. Duetting behavior occurs at two levels of organization: the individual level and the pair level. Individuals initiate vocalizations, answer their mates' vocalizations, and control the structure and timing of their own vocalizations. Pairs produce duets that vary with respect to duration, temporal coordination, and phrase-type combinations, among other properties.
Ian Urbina of the New York Times has just released a story that provides further analysis on the victims that appear in the "Murder at Sea" video featured in his series, "The Outlaw Ocean."
That such a violent act can be filmed, but largely ignored by law enforcement officials, demonstrates the degree of impunity with which crimes are committed on the high seas.
Coups d’état are frequently both causes and consequences of larger-scale civil wars and rebellions. This policy brief outlines the findings published from the first global quantitative study of the relationship between coups and civil wars, entitled "Causes and Outcomes of Coups During Civil War" by Curtis Bell and Jun Kogga Sudduth in the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
One Earth Future Foundation and RTC Impact Fund developed this study to explore the role that an impact investment fund may have in the negotiation of mining-related community agreements. This analysis is based on a review of relevant literature and interviews with stakeholders in select jurisdictions with specific focus on the Philippines, where the free, prior, and informed consent of indigenous communities to mining is legally required.
Is a world without war possible in the 21st century?Trends in armed conflict and a developing body of social scientific research suggest that this idea is plausible.Based on a discussion of high-level experts held in 2014, this report reviews the existing research on peace and conflict to argue that peace is an achievable goal for the globe.Current systems for human security have largely succeeded in reducing the risk of war, and if these systems are extended and sustained then it is possible that the world will reach a stable system without war.This report lays out three initial starting p
Though approximately one in four coup attempts takes place during an ongoing civil war, scholars have not yet analyzed how the incidence of civil war affects coup attempts and outcomes. We conduct the first empirical analysis of the relationship between ongoing civil war and coup activity, finding (1) war increases the risk of a coup attempt, though (2) war-time coup attempts are significantly less likely to be successful, and (3) the risk of war-time coup is much higher when states face stronger rebel groups that pose greater threats to the political survival of the incumbent government.
When rebels provide social services, do they have more leverage negotiating the terms of a peace deal? The literature suggests service-providing groups may, on average, have a wider base of support and a more centralized organizational structure. We argue that these features deter potential spoilers from breaking away from the organization during negotiation processes. This, in turn, makes governments more willing to enter negotiations since the threat from spoilers is smaller.
The joint survey of UNODC and OBP finds that:
• Poor economic conditions were reported as the major reason for engaging in piracy, and long-term solutions to piracy should address this.
• Prisoners report being very impacted by prison, and express a strong desire to avoid future prison time.
• International navies, more than any other counter-piracy activity, were listed as the primary deterrent. Armed guards aboard ships were also frequently listed.
As part of an ongoing lessons-learned project based on Oceans Beyond Piracy’s work with the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, OEF Research is documenting the potential role of non-state actors in maritime security. Based on this work, in November 2014 OEF Research staff participated in a research workshop organized under the NATO Science for Peace and Security Program. This workshop focused on questions of communication and coordination in maritime security, with an eye to improving NATO maritime strategy and maritime security more broadly.
Non-state actors have a strong counter-piracy role for the maritime sector, potentially greater than the role they play in land-based problems. They can provide direct services, or serve as the coordinators for networked structures to address collective problems. The process for engaging with non-state actors can take time, but systems interested in addressing maritime problems should consider formal outreach activities to bring them onboard.