Scholars have proposed a number of different ways to improve global accountability, but none has adequately addressed how individuals who commit widespread or systematic nonviolent wrongs can be held to account. I argue that for moral reasons individuals should be held accountable for nonviolent crimes against humanity and that an existing legal institution, the International Criminal Court (ICC), has the authority to prosecute such crimes.
Aloyo argues that transitional justice should be democratized so that victims and potential victims constitute the transitional justice demos. To realize this goal he proposes a method by which people can be enfranchised to make such choices. This article balances three democratic principles: collective self-determination, the all- affected-interests principle, and the protection of individual rights that are necessary for voting. Aloyo proposes a new institution that would balance international and local control of transitional justice decision making, and choose the demos.
Both the human and economic costs of piracy off the coast of Somalia have been reduced, at high expense, through the use of armed guards and continued adherence to Best Management Practices (BMP) by industry, more aggressive actions by navies, and positive developments on land in Somalia which have made it difficult for pirates to operate from traditional havens. While these expenditures have proven effective at mitigating the risk of piracy at sea, they do not represent a sustainable or desirable solution to piracy because of the pressures of cost, fatigue, and risk.
Recognizing the decrease in pirate attacks, this paper evaluates the current status of counter-piracy initiatives and attempts to answer the question, have we reached the End Game?
The success of non-state actors does not mean that intergovernmental organizations have no role — quite the contrary. The diversity of actors has created opportunities for new partnerships to form and older ones to be strengthened, but states and their intergovernmental organizations remain an essential component of future global governance. Their strengths and unique capabilities should not be short-changed in our enthusiasm for non-state actors.
Somali Pirates are organized criminal actors, who operate in a similar fashion to armed groups. In the town of Eyl, Somalia, a multi-stakeholder program - involving Clan elders, religious leaders, local businessmen, and the population, - used a strategy of community mobilization to create a hostile environment toward piracy. The program leveraged social structure and devout religious sentiment to deter defection by individual actors within the program, in order to present a united front against the pirate gangs. This resulted in the successful displacement of pirates.
Piracy has plagued the seas for at least 40 centuries, and been a thorn in the side of nearly every sea going civilization. Pirates have plied their trade as common thieves, instruments of war, or as civilizations in their own right. Most states throughout history have utilized three strategies when dealing with pirates: Collaborate, Suppress, or Tolerate.
Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP), a project of the One Earth Future Foundation; the International Maritime Bureau (IMB); and the Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP) are pleased to present the Human Cost of Maritime Piracy, 2012. This is the third assessment of the impact of piracy on seafarers and their families. While previous reports focused exclusively on Somali piracy, this report includes an analysis of the Gulf of Guinea region.
The world confronts many threats with transnational dimensions that transcend the the capacity of states to address. While the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) can mitigate obstacles to international cooperation, such institutions at present are unable to fill governance gaps at the global level. Today's challenges require novel approaches that include diverse stakeholder. The subject of this study is one such initiative: the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGCPS).
Past research on business engagement with human rights, peace, and security has identified specific reasons why national and transnational companies may be interested in participating, as well as how they have contributed to protecting human rights. The international discussion around the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) can be considered a special case of protection of human rights and security. The issues addressed under R2P, such as the prevention of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, fall within the scope of business engagement with human rights or peace.