This white paper offers a synthetic review of empirical evidence on the elements of state governance that affect interstate and intrastate armed conflict. In the first part of the paper we examine state capacity and institutional quality. We observe that peace is associated with security capacity and the ability of states to control and defend territory. It is also associated with social capacity, defined as the ability to provide public goods and support social welfare.
Oceans Beyond Piracy is pleased to present its third annual assessment of the Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2012 (ECoP 2012). This year's assessment, like the one before it, considered nine separate cost categories and found that maritime piracy cost the global economy between $5.7 and $6.1 billion in 2012. This figure reflects a drop in the cost of piracy to the global community of around $850 million, or 12.6% from 2011.
Piracy has topped the international agenda since 2008, when Somali piracy resurfaced as a major threat to global shipping, humanitarian aid delivery, and the well-being of seafarers. The international community responded to this threat with crisis response operations in the form of naval patrols and convoys, privately contracted armed security personnel, and industry best management practices.
Despite widespread commitment to the international human rights regime, human rights abuses persist and go unpunished. One prominent explanation for this phenomenon is that states are insincerely committing to treaties they perceive as having weak enforcement mechanisms. Only recently, however, states created an international human rights treaty with a new and much stronger enforcement mechanism.
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of the banking segment in Somalia. It reviews current systems for financial transfers and discusses the possibility of the introduction of a two-tier banking system.
How does the way in which a group organizes change the lethality of the group's attacks? In this article, we argue that groups organized vertically as hierarchies are likely to conduct more lethal attacks. We build our argument around three advantages inherent to centralized structures: functional differentiation, clear command and control structures, and accountability. We argue that each of these characteristics positively impacts an organization's ability to deliver an effective lethal blow.
Somalia’s difficult history has hampered the development of infrastructure that could support growth and improve lives. The energy sector has been particularly hard hit. This paper reviews the prospects of wind power generation in Somaliland are reviewed.
This market analysis identifies factors influencing the profitability of the honey industry in Somalia, using a framework for analysis based on Michael Porter’s “five forces model” with the introduction of a sixth set of forces comprising complements that support the market segment.
The latest version of the joint study by Oceans Beyond Piracy and the International Maritime Bureau was launched at the International Maritime Organization’s headquarters in London on June 22, 2012 and details the plight of seafarers at the hands of Somali pirates. The report is a combination of information provided by the signatory states to the Declaration Condemning Acts of Violence Against Seafarers, the Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP), and data compiled by OBP.
In 2011, Somali pirates attacked 237 ships and successfully hijacked 28. Piracy impacts multiple stakeholders, none more so than the seafarers attacked, held hostage, or killed. Oceans Beyond Piracy’s report on the “Economic Cost of Somali Piracy” estimates that piracy cost nearly $7 billion in 2011. The study assesses nine different cost factors, and finds that over 80% of the costs are borne by the shipping industry, while governments account for 20% of the expenditures associated with countering piracy attacks.