Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP), a project of the One Earth Future Foundation; the International Maritime Bureau (IMB); and the Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP) are pleased to present the Human Cost of Maritime Piracy, 2012. This is the third assessment of the impact of piracy on seafarers and their families. While previous reports focused exclusively on Somali piracy, this report includes an analysis of the Gulf of Guinea region.
The world confronts many threats with transnational dimensions that transcend the the capacity of states to address. While the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) can mitigate obstacles to international cooperation, such institutions at present are unable to fill governance gaps at the global level. Today's challenges require novel approaches that include diverse stakeholder. The subject of this study is one such initiative: the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGCPS).
Past research on business engagement with human rights, peace, and security has identified specific reasons why national and transnational companies may be interested in participating, as well as how they have contributed to protecting human rights. The international discussion around the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) can be considered a special case of protection of human rights and security. The issues addressed under R2P, such as the prevention of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, fall within the scope of business engagement with human rights or peace.
This white paper offers a synthetic review of empirical evidence on the elements of state governance that affect interstate and intrastate armed conflict. In the first part of the paper we examine state capacity and institutional quality. We observe that peace is associated with security capacity and the ability of states to control and defend territory. It is also associated with social capacity, defined as the ability to provide public goods and support social welfare.
Oceans Beyond Piracy is pleased to present its third annual assessment of the Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2012 (ECoP 2012). This year's assessment, like the one before it, considered nine separate cost categories and found that maritime piracy cost the global economy between $5.7 and $6.1 billion in 2012. This figure reflects a drop in the cost of piracy to the global community of around $850 million, or 12.6% from 2011.
Piracy has topped the international agenda since 2008, when Somali piracy resurfaced as a major threat to global shipping, humanitarian aid delivery, and the well-being of seafarers. The international community responded to this threat with crisis response operations in the form of naval patrols and convoys, privately contracted armed security personnel, and industry best management practices.
Despite widespread commitment to the international human rights regime, human rights abuses persist and go unpunished. One prominent explanation for this phenomenon is that states are insincerely committing to treaties they perceive as having weak enforcement mechanisms. Only recently, however, states created an international human rights treaty with a new and much stronger enforcement mechanism.
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of the banking segment in Somalia. It reviews current systems for financial transfers and discusses the possibility of the introduction of a two-tier banking system.
How does the way in which a group organizes change the lethality of the group's attacks? In this article, we argue that groups organized vertically as hierarchies are likely to conduct more lethal attacks. We build our argument around three advantages inherent to centralized structures: functional differentiation, clear command and control structures, and accountability. We argue that each of these characteristics positively impacts an organization's ability to deliver an effective lethal blow.
Somalia’s difficult history has hampered the development of infrastructure that could support growth and improve lives. The energy sector has been particularly hard hit. This paper reviews the prospects of wind power generation in Somaliland are reviewed.